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jewelry glossary

Antique jewelry glossary

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Olympian gods

The Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: "dodeka" meaning "twelve" and "theon" meaning "of the gods"), in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus.

The classical scheme of the Twelve Olympians (the Canonical Twelve of art and poetry) comprises the following gods:

The respective Roman scheme comprises the following gods:

  • Jupiter
  • Juno
  • Neptune
  • Ceres
  • Mars
  • Mercury
  • Vulcan
  • Venus
  • Minerva
  • Apollo
  • Diana
  • Vesta

The Twelve Olympians gained their supremacy in the world of gods after Zeus led his siblings to victory in war with the Titans; Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia were siblings; all the other of the Dodekatheon are usually considered the children of Zeus by various mothers, except for Athena, who in some versions of the myth was born of Zeus alone, and Aphrodite who was formed from the castrated phallus of the primordial sky which Cronos threw into the sea when he freed the Titans. Additionally, some versions of the myth state that Hephaestus was born of Hera alone as Hera's revenge for Zeus' solo birth of Athena.

First generation Olympian gods

  • Zeus - King of the Gods and ruler of Mount Olympus; god of the sky, thunder, and justice
  • Hera - Queen of the Gods and of the heavens; goddess of women, marriage, and motherhood
  • Poseidon - Lord of the Sea; god of the seas, horses, and earthquakes
  • Demeter - Goddess of fertility, agriculture, nature, and the seasons
  • Hestia - Goddess of the hearth and home

Second generation Olympian gods

  • Aphrodite - Goddess of love, beauty, desire, and fertility
  • Apollo - The Sun God; god of light, healing, music, poetry, prophecy, archery and truth
  • Ares - God of war, frenzy, and bloodshed
  • Artemis - Goddess of the hunt, of maidens, and the moon
  • Athena - Goddess of wisdom, crafts, and strategic battle
  • Hephaestus - Blacksmith to the Gods; god of fire and the forges
  • Hermes - Messenger of the Gods; god of commerce, speed, thieves, and trade

Close to the Olympians

  • Bia - Personification of violence
  • Cratos - Personification of power
  • Dione - Mother of Aphrodite by Zeus
  • Dionysus - God of wine and merriment
  • Eileithyia - Goddess of childbirth; daughter of Hera and Zeus
  • Eos - Personification of Dawn
  • Eris - Goddess of Discord
  • Eros - God of Love
  • Ganymede - Cupbearer of Heaven
  • Hades - Lord of the Dead; god of the Underworld and wealth
  • Hebe - Goddess of youth, and cupbearer
  • Helios - Personification of the Sun
  • Heracles - Greatest hero of the Greek myths
  • Horae - Wardens of Olympus
  • Iris - Personification of the Rainbow, also the messenger of Olympus along with Hermes
  • Leto - Titaness; the mother of Apollo and Artemis
  • Morpheus - God of Dreams
  • Muses - Nine ladies of science and arts
  • Nemesis - Greek goddess of retribution
  • Nike - Goddess of victory
  • Paean - Universal healer
  • Persius - Posiden's son, one of the greatest heros in all of greek mythology
  • Persephone - Goddess of the spring and death
  • Selene - the Moon
  • Zelus - Emulation


  • Hades, the god of the Underworld, is always confused as not being part of the 12. He has earned the right to be part of the 12 since his big contribution to the war with the Titans.
  • Artemis is often associated in modern times with the moon, although Selene is almost always named as the moon goddess in Greek literature.
  • Apollo is often associated in modern times with the sun, although Helios was almost always called sun god in ancient Greek poetry.

From: Wikipedia

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